Blog of the Society for Menstrual Cycle Research

Symptoms are Demeaning….and Feminine?

January 31st, 2014 by Heather Dillaway

According to a recent piece in The Times, a reputable English newspaper, symptoms are demeaning AND feminine. More specifically, the article reports on the prostate cancer experiences of Sir Michael Parkinson, or “Parky,” a famous British talkshow host. Parkinson reveals his harrowing experience of getting prostate cancer treatment and its “grueling” side-effects. While the treatments worked, they apparently produced menopause-like symptoms (hot flushes and weight gain) that reminded him of “how women feel when they are going through menopause.” Parkinson is quoted directly as saying, “In a sense you become a woman. I’m getting fitted for a bra next week!” The reporter goes on to say “he’s joking but he’s also deadly serious.” The “menopausal” symptoms that Parkinson had during his prostate cancer treatments are also described as “demeaning” in the same paragraph.

Parkinson is a major public figure in the UK, with significant media influence. I’m certain that this article was read by many as a result, and it makes me wonder about the far-reaching impact of the negative characterizations made about both women and bodily symptoms in this article. When I read this article, I find the equation of symptoms and femininity problematic, for lots of health conditions that produce bodily changes and sensations are not only experienced by women. Experiencing a hot flush or hot flash, while often attributed to menopause, is not menopause-specific all of the time. You can have hot flushes from exercising hard, from the flu, from medications that treat a range of diseases, or when you’re embarrassed. You can have weight gain at midlife (or any time of life for that matter) for a variety of reasons unrelated to menopause. Both the equation of women with symptoms and the definitions of symptoms as negative and “demeaning” show exactly how little progress we have made in eradicating gendered ideologies that harm us. Women are equated with their bodies and seen as lesser than men because of this equation. Men are supposed to be able to rise above their bodily functions, signs, and symptoms and live the life of the mind. Thus, when men experience a symptom they must rid themselves of it because, oh, the horror, they might be “like women” if they have to pay attention to their bodies at all. Research studies show quite often that women are ignored by doctors when they report a long list of symptoms and are not given the treatments they need to ease those symptoms as much as men are, because doctors learn to assume that women are just overreacting. Symptoms are not real if reported by women, studies suggest. Yet, when men experience symptoms and report them they are treated for them more often, especially when they report things such as pain. I interviewed a woman once who told me that “symptoms are always negative” and I wonder if that is partially because of the equation of symptoms with femininity and women’s bodies.

I am certain that it was difficult for Parkinson to undergo treatments for his prostate cancer. I also know that hot flushes and weight gain are never comfortable for people, especially when they seem uncontrollable. BUT, when we go on to support the characterization of symptoms as “what women feel” and then in the next breath say that those symptoms are “demeaning,” we head right into reifying gender ideologies that harm every single one of us. Men should be able to notice changes in their bodies without feeling “feminine.” We should recognize bodily symptoms as part of both health and illness that everyone experiences. And women should not have to be defined only by the fact that they go through certain reproductive transitions that include symptoms. I know Parkinson is perhaps from a generation that might still be holding tightly to gender ideologies that do not make much sense for the contemporary world, but I hold the reporter responsible for some of the characterizations made in this article, too. It is 2014, and aren’t we supposed to be more progressive than this? Because you experience a hot flush you should be fitted for a bra? In the YouTube video that appears along with this post, Parkinson himself admits “men are silly about their health.” I’ll say. But comments reported in the recent Times article go way past being silly.

Hot Flashes Are Weird

November 12th, 2012 by Paula Derry

I have two pretty contradictory sets of opinions about hot flashes. In a previous blog post, I emphasized one of them. Namely, that flashes are a mind/body phenomenon in which a woman’s interpretation of her physical experiences are central to her being distressed or not, of being able to cope or not, of what an experience is and means. A woman can identify her “real” self with her thoughts or her body, or she can experience her embodied self as a totality. In my first set of attitudes, the diversity of physical experiences is part of the mix: The same term, “hot flash,” is used for a wide family of experiences that range from mild to unbearable, from heat to heart palpitations, from empowerment to anxiety. However, in my second set of opinions, physical experience is front and central, and my thoughts can be summarized as follows: Hot flashes are weird.

In a conventional view, flashes are simply something that happens because of the hormonal changes surrounding menopause. They are often defined as a transient feeling of heat, sometimes accompanied by sweating or the skin turning red, that typically lasts a few minutes but can persist up to an hour. Flashes are most common in the years surrounding menopause but can begin many years before or occur many years after the final menstrual period. One theory is that fluctuating levels of estrogen affect a part of the brain that controls heat regulation. As a result, small changes in temperature are interpreted by the brain as meaning that the body’s temperature is outside the normal range; the hot flash is the body’s attempt to cool the body down. Alternatively, perhaps the hormonal imbalance affects the brain or other endocrine glands in other ways, or perhaps some women are simply more sensitive to these changes.

However, the experience of flashes is complex. A woman who is overheated for other reasons may not feel like a woman having a hot flash. A flashing woman might feel like she is on fire. Or she may feel hot only in an isolated body part, like her back or earlobes. Or the feeling of heat may start in one part of the body (like her head or upper back) and travel. Some women may not realize their feeling of gentle warmth is caused by a flash until later. Further, there are experiences in addition to that of warmth. The experience might feel like anxiety rather than heat. There may be a sharp physical shock or jolt. Some women, for example, may wake up in the middle of the night with a shock of anxiety and wonder what has threatened them. Some women report other associated sensations such as a racing heart, nausea, and breathlessness. Some feel dizzy, anxious, and unable to concentrate. Others experience cognitions and feelings such as empowerment, anxiety, and catastrophic thoughts.

Flashes are basically not understood. Beneath the scientific generalities, there is no specific understanding of what underlies flashes. They do clearly have something to do with estrogen: they increase in frequency in the years surrounding menopause, and treatment with a hormone medication is helpful. However, while fluctuating estrogen levels are assumed to be causal, clear evidence of this has been notably lacking. Further, flashes are found during the menopausal transition and postmenopausally, two very different hormonal situations, but are not a widespread phenomenon during premenstrual hormone fluctuations. For the minority of women with severe symptoms, there is no understanding that would lead to correction of underlying problems beyond symptomatic treatment with medications like estrogen. Why would a brain center regulating body heat be affected in some women but not others or in the same woman only sometimes? There are speculations that estrogen is needed for brain general health and proper neurotransmitter balance or that some women are “more sensitive” to normal changes in hormone levels. It seems that additional factors must also be at play. The large cross-cultural differences in flash frequency and the large placebo effects of medications are not understood, neither is the role of stress or other psychological or situational factors.

So, I think it’s weird. I think it’s weird to have odd physical experiences like a sudden experience of intense heat or a sharp jolt, even though for most women the experience seems to cause no significant or permanent harm. For women who find these experiences unsettling: why wouldn’t they? It’s almost sensible. The idea that we’re told “it’s just menopause” is weird. Personally, I wish more basic research was being done about what hot flashes are. I wish that more basic research was being done to understand women who have serious problems. As an analogy to the idea that there is “normal pregnancy and childbirth” and there are “complications of pregnancy and childbirth,” which discomforts are “just menopause” and which are “complications of menopause”?


Derry, P.S., & Dillaway, H. (2013).  Rethinking menopause.   In M. Spiers, P. Geller, & J. Kloss (Eds.), Women’s Health Psychology, pages 440-463. New York: Wiley.

Make Friends With Hot Flashes

May 28th, 2012 by Paula Derry

One important idea in a holistic approach to health is that symptoms or uncomfortable physical experiences don’t exist separate and apart from the whole person.  For this reason, it is important to know how a unique individual experiences that symptom or experience.  Another important idea is that the whole person consists of a physical body, but also thoughts, feelings, even spirit, and she lives in a social and physical world that affects her. Holistic practitioners say “I am a body,” not “I have a body.”

Photo by Pennstatelive // CC 2.0

What does this mean to a woman bothered by hot flashes?   First, one good starting place for a woman is to look inside herself at her individual experience.  Hot flashes are often said to be the bane of a woman’s existence, creating intense discomfort, mood swings, embarrassment.  However, in reality women differ.  Some women  are greatly bothered by flashes.  Others are not.  Some say flashes are power surges. For some, the flash is purely a feeling of heat; for others, it feels more like anxiety. Very distressed women may have experiences like insomnia, depression, fatigue, fogginess.  It turns out that the frequency of flashes is distinct from how distressing they are. For some women but not others simple remedies like dressing in layers works. In a scientific sense, we know more than we did not long ago, but there is still no fundamental understanding of what a hot flash is, or why some women but not others experience them.

Cultivating an inner observer can be useful to identify personal experience.   Mindfulness is one approach to this. For many women, thoughts are an integral part of the hot flash experience, and these thoughts might contribute to how distressing flashes are.  Expecting the worst might amplify distress, as it does for other experiences like pain.   One example of an expectation is: “I’m going to have hot flashes for the rest of my life.”  The meaning of flashes—natural, an indication of aging, a worrisome sign that something puzzling is going on in your body–might be important.  Embarrassment and self-doubt in social settings are known to sometimes contribute to experiencing flashes as problems.  Coping self-talk—for example, “this is a hot flash, it will pass” –might be helpful.  Relaxing the body and observing a flash rather than tensing the body to resist it might make flashes less distressing.  Paradoxically, distancing ourselves from bodily experience—for example, tensing the body until a flash passes, may be less effective than accepting bodily experience as our own with an attitude of observing it. Other active problem-solving might also be useful, like finding solutions to social problems.  Women who talk with other women about flashes tend to find them less distressing.

Of course, other women just want to be rid of flashes.  They might have very distressing, debilitating symptoms.  They may simply just not want to put up with them.   For some, focusing their attention on flashes might not make things better or even make things worse. Active problem-solving can work here, also.  For example, flashes are often associated with triggers (stress, foods like chocolate, caffeine, etc.) that vary from woman to woman. Triggers, once identified, can be avoided. A woman can make time to take care of herself, doing something pleasurable or rejuvenating, find ways to reduce stress, or otherwise alter her lifestyle. A variety of remedies have been suggested, ranging from herbal remedies, to alternative practices and practitioners, to hormone therapies. Actively deciding that a hormone therapy is needed given her own situation might be a way a woman actively takes charge of her experience.

Hot flashes are not invaders. They are sometimes welcome, often not, but always one’s own bodily experience.  Through gathering information, self-observation, talking with others, or finding helpful practices and practitioners, they can be dealt with.

Some recent news about Hot Flushes and Night Sweats

October 25th, 2011 by Chris Hitchcock

Prevalence of Hot Flushes and Night Sweats in UK women 54-65

In a new, large (over 10 000 women)  survey of UK women aged 54-65, Myra Hunter and colleagues reported on the proportion of women who have hot flushes and night sweats (HF/NS), and on how frequent and bothersome they found them. Surprisingly, they did not find a difference across ages; 54% of women reported that they currently experienced hot flushes and/or night sweats, and this was as true for women in their mid-60’s as in their mid-50’s. Current users of hormone therapy were less likely to have current HF/NS, while those who had discontinued hormone therapy were more likely to have HF/NS compared with never users. It is common to think that HF/NS last for 2-5 years in a woman’s early 50’s. This study suggests that there is a need for therapies that are effective and can be used safely for a much longer duration.

FDA says no to Pristiq for (Post)Menopausal Hot Flushes

In early September, the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration) turned down Pfizer’s request to market it’s antidepressant drug, Pristiq, as a treatment for hot flushes in menopausal women. Pfizer inherited Pristiq when it acquired Wyeth (makers of the hormone therapy medication PremPro).  This is the first anti-depressant to seek official approval for this indication, although there has been research and promotion of antidepressants as alternative, non-hormonal, off-label medications for vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes and night sweats) for some time.

Perhaps not surprisingly, there has been little coverage of this in the media, as contrasted with the coverage of the various steps towards this point.

I have noticed that when a drug therapy is approved or takes a step along the path towards approval, news coverage is general and widespread. When there is a hitch in the approval process, often only the financial markets pick up the story, because it affects share values. However, there is an article in Medscape that provides more background on the history of this application.


Readers should note that statements published in re: Cycling are those of individual authors and do not necessarily reflect the positions of the Society as a whole.