Blog of the Society for Menstrual Cycle Research

SMCR Member Profile: Studying how ovulation and the menstrual cycle impact women’s health

June 23rd, 2016 by Editor

Jerilynn C. Prior BA, MD; Professor of Medicine/Endocrinology at the University of British Columbia; Scientific Director of the Centre for Menstrual Cycle and Ovulation Research

Jerilynn Prior2When and why did you join the Society for Menstrual Cycle Research?
I joined SMCR at the Ann Arbor, Michigan conference in 1987—I presented a paper there saying that the absence of normal premenstrual symptoms (molimina) could tell women they were not ovulating. I was already doing research on menstrual cycles and bone changes in normally active women and in long-distance runners and wanted the support of other researchers with similar interests.

How did you become interested in doing menstrual cycle research?
I’ve wondered what was normal and how menstrual cycle adaptations occurred since my own cycle went away for the first nine months of my university training. I decided to go into endocrinology as a specialty of internal medicine because it required a holistic view and could focus on balance rather than solely on diseases. When I first moved to Canada in 1976 and sought to become an academic I realized I needed a special niche within endocrinology—I chose women’s reproductive endocrinology since at the time the longer distance running exercise that women were just being allowed to do was being blamed for women’s development of amenorrhea. That felt like prejudice. It also was poorly studied.    

Which researcher or paper influenced or inspired you to pursue research in this area? Why?
I think the desire to study menstrual cycles grew out of my own experiences and questions as well as trying to ensure gender equity in exercise opportunities.

What are the primary areas of your menstrual cycle research?
One of the non-scientist leaders on SMCR in the early days asked me: “On what day of the cycle do women ovulate?” Even then I knew it was highly variable both within and between women. 

My research focusses on:

–adaptation of cycle and ovulation to exercise (e.g. marathon running)

–influence of menstrual cycle length and ovulation on bone change

–influence of menstrual cycles and ovulation on women’s later life risks for heart disease

–influence of menstrual cycles and ovulation on women’s risk for breast and endometrial cancer

–cause, consequences and treatment of hot flushes and night sweats

–hormonal and experiential changes during the perimenopause

–influences of use of combined hormonal contraception on changes in bone and reproductive characteristics, especially in adolescence

–treatment of common cycle-related problems such as heavy flow, irregular/absent cycles, cramps   

Where can visitors to our blog read about your work on the menstrual cycle?
This paper on spinal bone loss and ovulatory disturbances showed for the first time that ovulation influences changes in healthy women’s bone. (N Engl J Med 1990)

This controlled trial showed that medroxyprogesterone (a progestin) causes bone gain in healthy, normal-weight premenopausal women with abnormal cycles and ovulatory disturbances. (1994 Am J. Med)

A meta-analysis of prospective studies showed that ovulatory disturbances are related to bone loss. (2014-Epidemiologic Reviews)

A study in a whole population of women 20-49 in Norway showed that, over one cycle, >33% of women with regular, normal-length cycles were not ovulatory. (2015—PLOS ONE)

Estrogen’s Storm Season- Stories of Perimenopause is a unique fiction book whose purpose is to inform and empower midlife women by telling stories of women who are not real but with whom they are likely to resonate. It is also to show how medicine should be practiced—as a collaboration between the woman who knows herself and her goals, and a knowledgeable, understanding physician. (Vancouver, BC: CeMCOR, 2005, 2007)

The Estrogen Errors: Why Progesterone is Better For Women’s Health,co-written with sociologist/journalist Susan Baxter, is a journalistic critique of current appropaches to perimenopause. (Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2009, available as an ebook.)

What is the most interesting, important or applicable thing your research has revealed about women’s experience of menstruation?
That regular cycles do not predict normal ovulation and at least a third of all are anovulatory in population-based data.

What is your current research or work in this area?
Trying to develop a non-invasive, inexpensive test of ovulation.

How has the field of menstrual cycle research changed since you entered this area?
It continues to be a hard area in which to get academic credit but more women are seeking knowledge and the world is becoming more open.

What else would you like our readers to know about the value, importance or influence of menstrual cycle research?
We’ve only begun to piece together the many things that change across the menstrual cycle or the processes that women’s estradiol and progesterone levels influence. Cycle specific measurements need to be built into all studies so that women can participate and the results will be scientific.

For information on becoming a member of the Society for Menstrual Cycle Research contact us by email: info@menstruationresearch.org. Subject line: Membership.

Writing Menopause, An Anthology: Preview #2

April 28th, 2016 by Editor

WritingMenopauseWriting Menopause, a diverse literary collection about menopause to be published in the spring of 2017 by Inanna Publicationswas first introduced to the Society for Menstrual Cycle Research in a session presented at our June 2015 biennial conference in Boston. The anthology includes about fifty works of fiction, creative nonfiction, poetry, interviews, and cross-genre pieces from contributors across Canada and the United States. With this collection, editors Jane Cawthorne and E.D. Morin hope to shine a light on a wide variety of menopause experiences and to shatter common stereotypes. This week at re: Cycling we are pleased to be able to preview excerpts from the collection. Preview #1 included a short prose piece and a poem by Tanya Coovadia. Today’s preview is by SMCR member Heather Dillaway, a piece that was previously published on this blog.


Fact and Fiction: Two Lists by Heather Dillaway

List One: Things Menopausal Women Would Love to Hear That ARE True

  1. what do i want to hear?It’s okay to be glad to be done with menstruation, the threat of pregnancy and the burdens of contraception. It’s also okay to use the menopausal transition to question whether you really wanted kids, whether you had the number of kids you wanted and whether you’ve been satisfied with your reproductive life in general. It’s normal to have all of these thoughts and feelings.
  2. You’re entering the best, most free part of your life! But, it’s okay if it doesn’t feel like that yet.
  3. Menopause does not mean you are old. In fact, potentially you are only half way through your life.
  4. You are not alone. Lots of people have the experiences you do. You are normal!
  5. I understand what you’re going through. (Or, alternatively, I don’t completely understand what you’re going through but I’m willing to listen.)
  6. It’s okay to be confused and frustrated at this time of life, or in any other time of life!
  7. You’ve had an entire lifetime of reproductive experiences and this is simply one more. How you feel about menopause is probably related to how you’ve felt about other reproductive experiences over time. It might be helpful to reflect back on all of the reproductive experiences you’ve had to sort out how you feel about menopause.
  8. Talk to other women you know. Talking about menopause helps everybody.
  9. Menopause and midlife can be as significant or insignificant as you’d like them to be. For some women, these transitions mean very important things but, for others, they mean little. Whatever it means to you is okay.
  10. Researchers are working hard to understand this reproductive transition more fully.

These represent the kind of supportive comments women might want to hear while going through menopause and, in particular, perimenopause. Items on this list also help us acknowledge that our bodies and bodily transitions cause us to reflect on our life stages, our identities and our choices.

List Two: Things Menopausal Women Would Love to Hear But Might NOT Be True

  1. This is guaranteed to be your last menstrual period. You are done! (Or, a related one: You’ve already had the worst. It gets better from here on out!)
  2. Signs and symptoms of menopause will be predictable and will not interrupt your life.
  3. No one will think negatively of you or differently about you if you tell them you’re menopausal.
  4. There are no major side effects to hormone therapies or any other medical treatments you might be considering.
  5. Doctors will be able to help you and will understand your signs and symptoms, if you need relief.
  6. Leaky bodies are no problem! No one will care if your body does what it wants, whenever it wants.
  7. Partners, children, coworkers and others will completely understand what you’re going through.
  8. Middle-aged women are respected in this society and it is truly a benefit to be at this life stage.
  9. There is a clear beginning and a clear end to this transition.
  10. Clinical researchers are researching the parts of menopause that you care about.

This reflects many of our societal norms and biases about our bodies, aging, gender, fertility and so on. This list also attests to the difficulties that menopausal women have in accessing quality health care or getting safe relief from symptoms when needed and notes the potential disconnects between research findings and women’s true needs during this transition.

Heather Dillaway is an associate professor of sociology at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan. Her research focuses on women’s menopause and midlife, and she often writes about the everyday experiences of going through these transitions. She teaches about women’s health, families and gender & race inequalities.

Writing Menopause, An Anthology: Preview #1

April 26th, 2016 by Editor

WritingMenopauseWriting Menopause, a diverse literary collection about menopause to be published in the spring of 2017 by Inanna Publicationswas first introduced to the Society for Menstrual Cycle Research in a session presented at our June 2015 biennial conference in Boston. The anthology includes about fifty works of fiction, creative nonfiction, poetry, interviews, and cross-genre pieces from contributors across Canada and the United States. With this collection, editors Jane Cawthorne and E.D. Morin hope to shine a light on a wide variety of menopause experiences and to shatter common stereotypes. This week at re: Cycling we are pleased to be able to preview excerpts from the collection.


Two pieces by Tanya Coovadia:

The Things We Carry

Last January, I attended a reading series during which two distinguished male authors, in separate opening remarks, said derogatory things about middle-aged women. I don’t think I would have noticed twenty years ago, but lately, for some reason, I am particularly attuned to discussions regarding women of my uncertain age, especially when they are uttered in tones suggestive of a shameful affliction.

Benign anal tumours, say.

One of these men, after his reading, went on to add further insult. He described the typical bumbling misapprehension of his work by that admiring but clueless fan who, he assured us, in his laconic drawl, was “always a middle-aged woman.” As a late-blooming member of the midlife sisterhood, this incident sparked a poem in me.

And (in a laconic drawl) it’s dedicated to Tim O’Brien.

Always a Middle-Aged Woman

(because middle-aged men are just men)

Striding up
with her staunchly held head
her opinions bared like wrinkled breasts

And those years she wears
a bitter glory of furrows and lines
etched by thousands of erstwhile smiles.

Who do they think they are,
these ladies (and we mean you, ma’am)
thriving so steadily
from their cloak of invisibility

We don’t see your once young face
we never stroked your once shining hair

We can’t hear your
sweet, barely caught breath
because you’re
Blatantly!
middle-aged

As though ageing is some kind of victory
as though youth and beauty
are not mandatory

As though you can bring
something new to the world
when your womb is too old to care.

My mirror,
I,
we,
you
reflect this, true

We lift our jowls toward our ears
and smile
a spasm, a rictus. Of youth.

Tanya Coovadia is a technical writer, blogger and angry-letter-writer-cum-fictionalist who occasionally dabbles in poetry. She’s a Canadian transplant to Florida who, during the writing of this poem, realized her interminable hot flashes were not weather-related after all. Ms. Coovadia has an MFA in Creative Writing from Pine Manor College in Boston. Her first collection of short fiction, Pelee Island Stories, recently won an IPPY award.

When breast cancer treatment leads to early menopause

April 14th, 2016 by Editor

In the same month I went from menstrual cramps to hot flashes overnight.

By Sheryl E. Mendlinger, PhD

Sheryl Mendlinger cut her hair short before undergoing treatment for breast cancer in 1994.

Sheryl Mendlinger cut her hair short before undergoing treatment for breast cancer in 1994.

In 1994, at the age of 43, I was diagnosed with stage 1 invasive breast cancer. At that time, treatment options were very limited, it was more a “one size fits all,” unlike the targeted therapies available now 20 years later. Taking into account the size of the lump—1.5 centimeters; my age—young enough that I was still pre-menopausal; and lymph nodes that all tested negative, my oncologist recommended I undergo a lumpectomy, a procedure that removed the lump and the surrounding breast tissue, followed by adjunctive chemotherapy and six weeks of daily radiation treatment. I became a statistic; although chemo was not a necessity, I was told that it would increase my chances of long term survival. I had been married to the love of my life for almost 22 years and had two teenage children, a son, 19, and my daughter Yael, 17. When I heard my diagnosis, I welcomed all options on the table, even the most extreme, as an answer to the frightening diagnosis of cancer, with hopes for a long life to see my own children grow into adulthood.

The doctor informed me only about some of the side effects of chemotherapy including: nausea, loss of appetite, hair loss and the possibility that my period might cease during treatment. However, no one addressed the fact that I would most likely go into overnight early onset menopause, which meant that not only would my ovaries stop working and vaginal dryness would set in, but my brain and cognitive abilities would experience a major shut down as well. One day I was bleeding and puking my guts up from the chemo, while days later I started to wake up in the middle of the night, in a pool of sweat, sheets kicked off the bed and I soon realized they were hot flashes. Menopause had arrived in full force.

At the end of her treatment she had short white hair and a full face.

At the end of treatment she had short, thin, white hair and a full face.

Whether from the chemo treatments or menopause, I started to gain a lot of weight and most of the clothes that hung in my closet no longer fit properly. As I wrote in my book Schlopping: Developing Relationships, Self-Image and Memories

“I ballooned from a size 8-10 to a 12-14. The additional fifteen to twenty pounds on my short frame and the new menopausal body made me feel extremely self-conscious, and the only way to continue to look good and feel better was to hide the bulges under baggy clothes, oversized blouses, or sweaters and leggings. The only pants that fit over my rounded belly were those with stretch elastic waist like old ladies wore….I dealt with the extra weight by buying clothes that fit my new changing body. I just accepted the changes that were taking place because it was a sign of me getting well….I felt the additional weight was good for me…and that my body was overcoming the illness… At the end of the treatments, I had very short, thin, white hair and a very puffy, fat, and full face…”

I remember approaching my oncologist very early in my chemo treatments and telling him that I felt my brain was fuzzy and that the connectors didn’t seem to be connecting; it was as if the entire “hard drive” in my brain had crashed and all the information was deleted. At that time, in the 1990s, doctors were convinced that “chemo does not pass the brain membrane.” To say the least, it was a strange, frightening, and terrible experience. I began to forget sentences in mid-thought in addition to having a lot of other medical problems. This memory loss happened at the onset of chemo, even when I was still getting my period. Once my period ceased, near the end of treatment, my cognitive abilities seemed to take a turn for the worse.

Several years after my treatments, in 2000, when I saw one of the first papers on “cognitive function and chemotherapy” in which the word “chemo-brain” was used, I felt a sense of relief that I was not the only person to have experienced this. Although this concept has finally been accepted in the medical world, and scientific research is being conducted in the area, there are still questions as to what causes the cognitive decline. Is it the inflammation from the cancer itself, is it the chemo, is it changes in thyroid functioning or B12, or is it the sudden loss of estrogen with the early onset of menopause? When speaking to young women who have undergone hysterectomies, they too complained of many of the same issues of cognitive decline.

Early onset menopause can affect so many aspects of overall health and the quality of life. More research, knowledge and information will better equip young women in coping with their changing bodies and understanding that it’s not “only in their heads.”

Sheryl E. Mendlinger, PhD, is an author, advocate for women’s health, daughter, wife, mother, and grandmother. She co-authored, with her daughter Yael Magen, “Schlopping (schlep+love+shopping): Developing Relationships, Self-Image and Memories” a book about finding answers to life’s challenges through schlepping with a loved one while shopping. Sheryl’s expertise is inter-generational transmission of knowledge and health behaviors in mother-daughter dyads from multicultural populations with a focus on menstruation.  

Premenopause / Early Menopause / Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (or Failure) / Perimenopause / Menopause / Postmenopause: Why these names matter

April 5th, 2016 by Editor

Making sense of the many names for women’s reproductive aging by Dr. Jerilynn C. Prior

Jerilynn C. Prior BA, MD, FRCPC, ABIM, ABEM is a Professor of Endocrinology and Metabolism at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, B.C. She is the founder (2002) and Scientific Director of the Centre for Menstrual Cycle and Ovulation Research(CeMCOR).

The process of aging of women’s reproductive system, like puberty and most biological transitions, occurs in a generally standardized but variable way and over many years. Also, there are broad age ranges at which we consider something normal or not. Then add on top of that cultural presuppositions, chief among them that “menopause means estrogen deficiency” (rather than that menopausal estrogen and progesterone levels are normally low), and we have real confusion and a situation that is not helpful1 for women or for their communication with health care providers.

I will do my best to describe some of these standardized ways that women’s physiology changes during reproductive aging. I will mention the current terms and the words that have some physiological relevance and should be used. Because I am a physician, I believe that understanding of “the story” of life phases and the “why” of experiences is helpful. It is also necessary to appreciate the whole woman in her social, cultural, physical and experiential environments markedly influence her experiences.

After extensive research to understand mine and my patient’s puzzling midlife experiences, I learned that the ovaries start to make less Inhibin (really Inhibin B) while cycles are still regular2;3. Inhibin is small hormone made in the follicular cells surrounding stored eggs; its job is to control levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Because FSH stimulates follicles to grow, Inhibin is necessary to limit the number of stimulated follicles and to prevent us having litters. As shown (Figure below), by very early perimenopause there are fewer remaining ovarian follicles (B), Inhibin is decreased and this allows higher FSH levels and more stimulated follicles. Since each recruited follicle makes some estrogen, levels rise and the higher estrogen levels are also not reliably able to control FSH3.

menopauseDiagram

Legend: The ovaries are shown as a stylized oval with follicles in various degrees of maturation. A. shows what is occurring in the follicular phase of a premenopausal ovary; B. illustrates the normal changes that occur in perimenopause. Reprinted from Prior Endocrine Reviews 1990

The same normal reproductive aging pattern of lower Inhibin, higher FSH and estrogen occurs when the ovary is injured; this can be by chemotherapy or radiotherapy for cancer, partial removal, more rapidly than normal after hysterectomy or tubal ligation/removal and in those with immune or genetic problems. The chaos of women’s reproductive aging occurs for these Inhibin-related reasons but also because the hypothalamic-pituitary ovarian feedbacks are disrupted (so a normal midcycle estrogen peak may not trigger the luteinizing hormone (LH) peak or the LH peak may not stimulate ovulation4). An FSH level, even one that is taken on cycle day 3, is not diagnostic of perimenopause. That estrogen levels average 20% higher in perimenopausal than in premenopausal women 3, I learned from a systematic review of studies within each of several centres; but symptomatic women may have double or triple normal cycle phase-specific levels that create the “perimenopausal ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome” because this situation resembles an adverse effect that may occur in IVF 3.

With this understanding we can define the three terms for normal reproductive life phases, the term used for perimenopause or menopause that comes too early and also identify some inappropriate labels.

Premenopause is the entire time (usually 30-40 years) from the first menstruation (menarche) until the changes of perimenopause start.

Perimenopause begins when cycles are still regular (called very early perimenopause and this phase lasts 2-5 years) but an observant woman notices typical experience changes5. Because the current official classification of reproductive aging begins with irregular cycles6, no one knows at what age on average this may start; likely it is normal from as young as age 35. At least three of nine typical experience changes, especially the start of night sweats, sleep problems or heavy flow, can be used to determine that you have begun this phase5. Additional potential perimenopause changes are: increased cramps, increased premenstrual physical and emotional unwanted experiences, shorter cycles (usually ≤25 days), increased or new breast tenderness, increased or new migraines and weight gain without important changes in exercise or food intake7. Perimenopause’s early menopausal transition starts when cycles become irregular and lasts a year or so; the late menopause transition begins with the first skipped cycle (60 days without flow) and late perimenopause is the year after the last flow.

Menopause is the life phase that lasts from a year after the final flow for the rest of women’s lives. It is normal for both estrogen and progesterone levels to be low. Hot flushes/flashes and night sweats may continue for many years but heavy flow, cramps, breast tenderness, premenstrual-type symptoms and severe migraine are usually gone.  (The term “postmenopause” is sometimes used interchangeably with menopause but is double-speak and refers to an erroneous use of the word “menopause” to mean the literal final menstrual flow).

Are menopause stereotypes still selling?

December 26th, 2015 by David Linton

The holiday season brings plenty of opportunities to celebrate as well as to reflect on our lives, our society, and the state of the world. So, here’s an opportunity to reflect on the state of the menstrual ecology, a look back at a post from three years ago, published on Aug. 6, 2012. This piece was about a book that, as the copyright page states, was “Published by Hallmark Books, a division of Hallmark Cards, Inc.” The publication date was 2008 and it was also credited to a company called Celestial Arts which still lists it in their catalog. However, it does not currently appear in the Hallmark online catalog and it is impossible to tell if any Hallmark stores still carry it. Which brings up some interesting questions. Has Hallmark dropped the product and, if so, why? Have they become more period and menopause positive – or at least less negative?  What prompted the publication of such a negative view of women in the first place? In any event, even the publication history of a trivial item such as this can yield insights into much larger issues and attitudes. That’s what makes studying the social construction of the menstrual cycle such a constantly fascinating topic.

HALLMARK – When you care enough to send the very . . . ??

Hallmark greeting cards and related trinkets have long exemplified wholesome, up-tempo, Norman Rockwell-styled sentimentality, often packaged in clichéd verses and trite images of puppies, kittens, flowers, babies, sunsets and other references guaranteed to elicit a smile, a tear, or a warm glow. However, as rude humor has spread its influence, expressed most vividly and viciously in celebrity roasts and the Comedy Central show, Tosh .0, Hallmark was not to be left behind. A visit to the racks of cards, books, and novelties at your local card shop reveals a wide variety of snarky items offering cheap shots at a wide variety of groups, hobbies, and practices.

Menopause001Among them are several items that attempt to poke fun at what are thought to be characteristics of women in some stage of the menstrual cycle, notably PMS or menopause. Setting aside the fact that the items perpetuate the common misuse of the term  menopause when what is meant is perimenopause, consider a small book presently on sale titled, Not Guilty by Reason of Menopause.

HallmarkIt is comprised of more than 50 pages, organized in double-page spreads, each of which offers a completion to the phrase, “You might be menopausal if. . .”

A few examples will suffice:

“. . . you think about the ‘til death do us part line in your wedding vows a little too often.”

“. . . you tell all your children they’re not your favorite.”

“. . . when your husband proposes a romantic vacation, you suggest ice fishing.”

Collectively, it amounts to an anthology of mean-spirited nastiness with little redeeming humor. Women are depicted as crazy, stupid, vicious, obese, and every other negative stereotype imaginable.

And with each insult women are expected to smile sweetly at being the butt of a bad joke. Of course, to express outrage or even mild annoyance with these sorts of put-downs is to risk of being accused of lacking a sense of humor or, worse yet, of being “politically correct,” the favored dismissive term of those who demand that their repugnant values are somehow benign or lacking in impact or intent.

We’ve come a long way from the days of 1910 when Hallmark was founded and especially from 1944 when the company adopted the slogan that is still theirs today, “When you care enough to send the very best.” In this case one might ask, “The very best of what?”

David Linton is an Emeritus Professor at Marymount Manhattan College. He is also Editor of the SMCR Newsletter and a member of the re: Cycling editorial board. His research focus is on media representations of the menstrual cycle as well as how women and men relate to one another around the presence of menstruation.

Women’s Reproductive Health journal explores postmenopausal hormone therapy

June 17th, 2015 by Editor

Free access to Women’s Reproductive Health, the journal launched by the Society for Menstrual Cycle Research in 2014, is available to all SMCR members. To become a member of the society or to obtain a subscription contact info@menstruationresearch.org.  For media, submission, and other inquires about the journal contact editor Joan C. Chrisler at jcchr@conncoll.edu.

 

Guest Post by Joan C. Chrisler

The spring 2015 issue of Women’s Reproductive Health contains our first special section: on postmenopausal hormone therapy. The section contains a thought-provoking anchor article by menopause expert, psychologist Paula Derry. It is followed by short commentaries by a multidisciplinary group of menopause experts–a physician, a sociologist, an anthropologist, and a nurse. This set of papers would make an excellent reading assignment for a women’s health course, and it is sure to generate class discussion. The issue also contains two other research reports: one on women’s experiences with gynecological examinations, and the other on the relative absence of mentions of menstruation in novels aimed at adolescent girls because publishers are worried about challenges by parents and school boards that could hurt sales. The issue is rounded out with three book reviews.

 

Women’s Reproductive Health

Volume 2, Number 1 (Spring 2015)

Special Section on Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy

Article
Evidence-based Medicine, Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy, and the Women’s Health Initiative – Paula Derry

Commentaries
The Science of Marketing: How Pharmaceutical Companies Manipulated Medical Discourse on Menopause – Adriane Fugh-Berman

Medicalization Survived the Women’s Health Initiative…but Has Discourse Opened up? – Heather Dillaway

Animal Models in Menopause Research – Lynette Leidy Sievert

Lost in Translation? – Nancy Fugate Woods

Articles
A Multi-method Approach to Women’s Experiences of Reproductive Health Screening – Arezou Ghane, Kate Sweeny, & William L. Dunlop

The Censoring of Menstruation in Adolescent Literature: A Growing Problem – Carissa Pokorny-Golden

Book Reviews
Investigating the Ubiquitous: The Everyday Use of Hormonal Contraceptives – Marie C. Hansen

Menstruation’s Cultural History – David Linton

WomanCode: Caveat Emptor – Elizabeth Rowe

Joan C. Chrisler is a professor of psychology at Connecticut College and the founding editor of Women’s Reproductive Health. Her special areas of interest include PMS, attitudes toward menstruation and menopause, sociocultural aspects of menstruation, and cognitive and behavioral changes across the menstrual cycle.

Menstrual management for women with disabilities, menstrual hygiene taboos, and menstrual cycle awareness

May 28th, 2015 by Editor

These two concurrent sessions address the menstrual-related challenges of women with disabilities, menstrual hygiene taboos and practices around the world,  and the concept of gynaecological self-help at the 21st Biennial Conference of the Society for Menstrual Cycle Research at The Center for Women’s Health and Human Rights, June 4-6, 2015, Suffolk University, Boston.

 

Menstrual Management, Friday, June 5th:

Women with Spinal Cord Injuries Talk about Menopause
Heather Dillaway, Wayne State University

Using data from interviews with 20 women with spinal cord injury, I illustrate how disabled women may think about and experience menopause. Overall, interviewees think positively about menopause as a release from the hassles of menstruation, but face unique experiences when dealing with perimenopausal symptoms. I also discuss their concerns about aging.

“Kahani Her Mahine Ki” – A Menstruation Kit for the visually impaired women
Sadhvi Thukral, National Institute of Design

“I am constantly worried that my dress will stain during my period, I cannot see.”

“I will never be able to tell the colour of my discharge during menstruation or when I need to change my cloth. To be safe, I change every few hours.”

These are unique anxieties of visually impaired young women.

A large gap exists in the area of “Communication for Menstruation” for the visually impaired. This design degree project was an attempt to fill this gap by developing a product for menstruation that would meet the needs of visually impaired girls and women.

The kit “Kahani Her Mahine Ki” (The Same Story Every Month) covers the subject of menstruation and how to manage during periods and has the following features:

1. Tactile diagrams and material in the form of Information Slates, with labels of the different body parts. Each slate has text for the sighted and Braille for the visually impaired. 2. A life size human body model for demonstration.

What they do, what we do, what I do: A critical review of five contemporary international surveys of menstrual management practices and technologies. How can these surveys inform Western practice? What areas remain to be surveyed?
Susannah Clemence, Independent researcher

This critical review compares the catalogues of contemporary menstrual management techniques from around the World, presented in Sommer et al (2013), House et al (2012), Kjellen et al (2012), Bharadwai and Patkar (2004) and Finley’s (1995-2015) Museum of Menstruation.

The purpose is to test how well-documented are contemporary practices across the World, and what areas remain yet unrecorded. The rationale is that diverse technologies and conduct, with their implicit beliefs and attitudes, grant us reference points from which to examine, critique and improve our own practices.

The review shows that there are large gaps in documented knowledge. Furthermore, other than the Museum of Menstruation, existing surveys tend to be rooted in development agendas of Western origin and tend to a deficit perspective of non-Western practices.

 

Menstrual Hygiene, Saturday, June 6th

A Vicious Cycle of Silence: The perpetuation of the menstrual hygiene ‘taboo’ and the implications for the realisation of the human rights of women and girls
Emily Wilson-Smith, Kampala International University & Robyn Boosey, University of Bristol 

Despite the impact of poor menstrual hygiene on the rights of women and girls it has remained largely neglected by International stakeholders. A document analysis of the core international human rights treaties and relevant human rights body reports found an overwhelming silence and an analysis of the existing references revealed an inadequate framework for addressing menstrual hygiene.

Improving Menstrual Health and Hygiene in India: Another critical path way for women emancipation
K Yadagiri, Centre for Economic and Social Studies,UNICEF Division for Child Studies 

Gynecological Self-Help Isn’t Just a Good Feeling – What we learned when we systematically studied our own menstrual cycles – and how you can learn MORE now!
Kathy Hodge, Feminist Women’s Health Center

In 1975, nine members of the Feminist Women’s Health Center collective met daily for over a month, recording changes in our vaginas and cervixes and their secretions, for PAP and ferning smears, charting moods and basal body temperature. We raised questions, some of which remain open and ripe for future woman-controlled research.

 Menstrual Hygiene Management practices in Slums: It’s impacts on the Women and Adolescent Girl’s Health – A Case study of Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation Slums, Telangana State, INDIA
Venu Madhav Sharma, Centre for Economic and Social Studies

Media Release and Registration for the SMCR Boston Conference on Menstrual Health and Reproductive Justice: Human Rights Across the Lifespan.

Experiencing Menopause: Sexuality, desire and literary exploration

April 27th, 2015 by Editor

Three paper presentations on Menopause at the 21st Biennial Conference of the Society for Menstrual Cycle Research at The Center for Women’s Health and Human Rights, June 4-6, 2015, Suffolk University, Boston will explore sexuality and the menopausal woman, as well as personal menopausal experiences as collected in a literary anthology.

1. Sex and the Menopausal Woman: Resisting Representations of the Abject Asexual Woman
     Presented by Jane Ussher and Janette Perz, Centre for Health Research, School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney 

Drawing on qualitative research conducted with women at midlife, and those who have experienced premature menopause after cancer, we argue that sexuality can continue to be a positive experience for women throughout adult life and into old age.

Medical discourse has traditionally positioned the menopausal transition as a time of sexual atrophy and loss of femininity, with hormonal replacement as the solution. In contrast, feminist critics have argued that women’s experience of sexual embodiment during menopause is culturally and relationally mediated, tied to discursive constructions of aging and sexuality, which are negotiated by women.

This paper will present a critical examination of women’s experiences of sexuality during and after the menopausal transition, drawing on in-depth one-to-one interviews we have conducted with 21 women at midlife, and 39 women who have experienced premature menopause as a consequence of cancer treatment.

Theoretical thematic analysis was used to identify three themes across the women’s accounts: ‘Intrapsychic negotiation of sexual and embodied change’; ‘Feeling sexy or frumpy: Body image and the male gaze’; ‘Indifference or desire? The relational context of sexuality during menopause’. Through this analysis, we challenge myths and misconceptions about the inevitability of sexual decline at menopause, as well as normalise the embodied changes that some women experience–whether menopause is premature, or occurs at midlife. We argue that sexual difficulties or disinterest reported by women during and after menopause are more strongly associated with psycho-social factors than hormonal status, in particular psychological well-being, relationship context and a woman’s negotiation of cultural constructions of sex, aging, and femininity. However, sexuality can continue to be a positive experience for women throughout adult life and into old age, with many menopausal women reporting increased sexual desire and response, as well as re-negotiation of sexual activities in the context of embodied change. This undermines the bio-medical construction of menopause as a time of inevitable sexual atrophy and decay.

2. Writing Menopause: Creating an Anthology
     Presented by Jane Cawthorne and E. D. Morin

The editors will discuss their process of envisioning and creating a new literary anthology that considers the diverse experience of menopause from various points of view. The anthology is composed of new works of poetry, short fiction, interviews, creative non-fiction, and cross-genre pieces, along with several previously published creative works that were chosen to round out the collection.

Although the editors make no claims that this work is in any way definitive, their focus instead was to create a venue for more stories and to encourage a richer vocabulary about this important transition within a literary context. The editors have observed that few literary representations of menopause exist. They will explain how they arrived at wanting to create this collection, as well as the submission process, the criteria used in accepting submissions, and how the shape of the collection shifted organically with the nature of submissions received. They will reflect on what types of submissions they would not accept, what they think the volume says about menopause, and how their own ideas about menopause were changed during the process. A few excerpts will be read.

3. Sexuality and Post-Menopausal  Women:  Desirability and Desire
     Presented by Maureen C. McHugh, and Camille J. Interligi,  Department of Psychology, Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Ageist cultural messages portray old bodies as ugly, asexual and undesirable (Calasanti & Slevin, 2001; Furman, 1997), and yet not engaging in sufficient partner sex is viewed as a sexual dysfunction.  How do contradictory cultural messages about the sexuality of older women impact their sense of themselves as sexual beings?

Aging threatens women’s sense of themselves as women, as sexual beings, and as sexually desirable (Clarke, 2011). Ageist cultural messages convey the cultural value placed on youthfulness and portray old bodies as ugly, asexual and undesirable (Calasanti & Slevin, 2001; Furman, 1997). Stereotyped as experiencing physical and sexual decline, and viewed as asexual, older women’s sexual interest may be deemed inappropriate. Yet not engaging in sufficient partner sex is seen as a dysfunction (McHugh, 2006).  Who says how much sex is enough? How do contradictory cultural messages about the sexuality of older women impact their sense of themselves as sexual beings?

Limited research on older women’s sexual desire and desirability reflects an androcentric bias. Research has rarely addressed appearance concerns, or the embodied nature of older women’s experiences (Clarke, 2011). Research on older women’s sexuality has emphasized sexual declines, diseases, and dysfunctions.  As the research on older women becomes less ageist, heteronormative and androcentric, we increasingly recognize the complexity and the contextual nature of women’s sexual desirability (Clark, 2011) and desire.

Save the Date! The Next Great Menstrual Health Con

June 16th, 2014 by Chris Bobel

Readers should note that statements published in re: Cycling are those of individual authors and do not necessarily reflect the positions of the Society as a whole.